Principles of Management
The basic principles of management consist of a number of practical guidelines that comprise the “essence of management”.
These guidelines include:
- Work should be divided so that each person will perform a specialized portion. This is known as division of work.
- Managers must have the authority to give orders and instructions, but they must also accept responsibility for whether the work is done correctly and be accountable for their actions and use of resources.
- Managers are responsible for exacting discipline and building morale among members of their workforce, but they must reciprocate by offering something of value.
- An individual should have only one boss. This is called unity of command.
- Every organization should have only one master plan, and one set of overriding goals. This is called unity of direction.
- Managers should place their personal interests second to shoe of the total organization.
- Pay and rewards should reflect each person’s efforts, and more important, each person's contribution to the organization's goals.
- Orders and instructions should flow down a chain of command from a higher manager to a lower one.
- Employees should be treated fairly, so that they feel a sense of equity.
- Managers should encourage initiative among employees.